de bello gallico book 5 summary

45 In proportion as the attack became daily more formidable and violent, and particularly, because, as a great number of the soldiers were exhausted with wounds, the matter had come to a small number of defenders, more frequent letters and messages were sent to Caesar; a part of which messengers were taken and tortured to death in the sight of our soldiers. 46 Caesar having received the letter about the eleventh hour of the day, immediately sends a messenger to the Bellovaci, to M. Crassus, questor there, whose winter-quarters were twenty-five miles distant from him. What issue would the advice of Cotta and of those who differed from him, have? Latin De Bello Gallico Caesar Book 4.24-.36.1 13 Terms. His personal enemies had killed him when in the third year of his reign, many even of his own state being openly promoters [of that act] This event is related to Caesar. 51 Induced by all these things, the enemy lead over their forces and draw up their line in a disadvantageous position; and as our men also had been led down from the ramparts, they approach nearer, and throw their weapons into the fortification from all sides, and sending heralds round, order it to be proclaimed that, if �any, either Gaul or Roman, was willing to go over to them before the third hour, it was permitted; after that time there would not be permission;� and so much did they disregard our men, that the gates having been blocked up with single rows of turf as a mere appearance, because they did not seem able to burst in that way, some began to pull down the rampart with their hands, others to fill up the trenches. Another side lies toward Spain and the west, on which part is Ireland, less, as is reckoned, than Britain, by one half: but the passage [from it] into Britain is of equal distance with that from Gaul. 28 Arpineius and Junius relate to the lieutenants what they had heard. or what [better] opportunity of signalizing your valor do you seek? There is also an 8th book, written by Aulus Hirtius. Once more, Gaul is peaceful. He arrives on a deserted British coast. They are sure that the unimportant Eburones would not dare make war alone, but Cotta and several tribunes and centurions are also sure that they should not leave without an order from Caesar. C. IVLI CAESARIS COMMENTARIORVM DE BELLO GALLICO LIBER PRIMVS. A strong wind whips at the Romans on the seventh day and the enemy takes advantage of it, hurling hot clay pellets and burning darts. The Trinobantes, the strongest state in the area, ask Caesar for protection and also plead with him to send them Mandubracius as ruler. Sabinus then orders the tribunes and senior centurions to follow him. From them he learns that the capital town of Cassivellaunus was not far from that place, and was defended by woods and morasses, and a very large number of men and of cattle had been collected in it. 58 Since Indutiomarus was daily advancing up to the camp with greater defiance, all the cavalry of the neighboring states which he [Labienus] had taken care to have sent for, having been admitted in one night, he confined all his men within the camp by guards with such great strictness, that that fact could by no means be reported or carried to the Treviri. The enemy forces then pull back and ask for one of the Romans to parley and settle the dispute. He further orders Cassivellaunus to leave the tribe of Mandubracius in peace, then moves with his army and the hostages back to the sea. De Bello Gallico and Other Commentaries summary and study guide are … The Roman fleet suffers severely in a storm.—XI. A few escaping from the battle, made their way to Labienus at winter-quarters, after wandering at random through the woods, and inform him of these events The Senones make excuses to Caesar for their actions but fail to obey his order to send their senate as hostages. He is convinced that the enemy would not dare act as it does if Caesar had not gone to Italy. Caesar moves for the stronghold, a thick woodland with natural barriers in addition to those built by the enemy, and attacks from two sides. All the Britains, indeed, dye themselves with wood, which occasions a bluish color, and thereby have a more terrible appearance in fight. Also note the multitude of soldiers involved in the battle between the Britons and Trebonius' foraging crew. 9 Caesar, having disembarked his army and chosen a convenient place for the camp, when he discovered from the prisoners in what part the forces of the enemy had lodged themselves, having left ten cohorts and 300 horse at the sea, to be a guard to the ships, hastens to the enemy, at the third watch, fearing the less for the ships, for this reason because he was leaving them fastened at anchor upon an even and open shore; and he placed Q. Atrius over the guard of the ships. Rebekahgracew. The Gallic-type huts inside are straw-roofed and quickly catch fire. Indutiomarus, in panic, sends a message to Caesar saying that he intends to keep order among the groups under him and prevent the common people from succumbing to indirection. His state wars, he says, because of Gallic pressure. Indutiomarus and Cingetorix.—V. 32 But the enemy, after they had made the discovery of their intended departure by the noise during the night and their not retiring to rest, having placed an ambuscade in two divisions in the woods, in a suitable and concealed place, two miles from the camp, waited for the arrival of the Romans: and when the greater part of the line of march had descended into a considerable valley, they suddenly presented themselves on either side of that valley, and began both to harass the rear and hinder the van from ascending, and to give battle in a place exceedingly disadvantageous to our men. They, greatly alarmed by the unexpected affair, though those things were spoken by an enemy, still thought they were not to be disregarded; and they were especially influenced by this consideration, that it was scarcely credible that the obscure and humble state of the Eburones had dared to make war upon the Roman people of their own accord. SUBSCRIBE TO READ OR DOWNLOAD EBOOK FOR FREE. Accordingly, the speech of Indutiomarus, which he had delivered in the council, having been made known [to him] by Cingetorix and his allies, he sends messengers to the neighboring states and summons horse from all quarters: he appoints to them a fixed day for assembling. The Nervii agree and send messages to the tribes under them asking for troops. Thither he proceeds with his legions: he finds the place admirably fortified by nature and art; he, however, undertakes to attack it in two directions. Caesar goes to port Itius; his policy in taking certain Gallic chieftains with him to Britain.—VI. He replies that logically they should take their request to Caesar; that answer naturally reveals the enemy's treachery. ], Caesar, when departing from his winter quarters into Italy, as he had been accustomed to do yearly, commands the lieutenants whom he appointed over the legions to take care that during the winter as many ships as possible should be built, and the old repaired. When they were brought, [and] among them his son and near relations, whom he had demanded by name, he consoled Indutiomarus, and enjoined him to continue in his allegiance; yet, nevertheless, summoning to him the chief men of the Treviri, he reconciled them individually to Cingetorix: this he both thought should be done by him in justice to the merits of the latter, and also judged that it was of great importance that the influence of one whose singular attachment toward him he had fully seen, should prevail as much as possible among his people. Then, when an inconsiderable space intervened, Pulfio throws his javelin at the enemy, and pierces one of the multitude who was running up, and while the latter was wounded and slain, the enemy cover him with their shields, and all throw their weapons at the other and afford him no opportunity of retreating. Already, he boasts, he has killed two legion commanders and has destroyed a large part of the Roman army. Caesar advances into the territories of Cassivellaunus as far as the Thames; an engagement with that prince.—XIX. Caesar's maneuver succeeds: seeing no Romans on the rampart, the enemy advance and fire missiles, then announce that anyone who comes over to their side before the final hour may do so without danger, but that after that time, there will be no mercy. 24 The ships having been drawn up and a general assembly of the Gauls held at Samarobriva, because the corn that year had not prospered in Gaul by reason of the droughts, he was compelled to station his army in its winter-quarters differently from the former years, and to distribute the legions among several states: one of them he gave to C. Fabius, his lieutenant, to be marched into the territories of the Morini; a second to Q. Cicero, into those of the Nervii; a third to L. Roscius, into those of the Essui; a fourth he ordered to winter with T. Labienus among the Remi in the confines of the Treviri; he stationed three in Belgium; over these he appointed M. Crassus, his questor, and L. Munatius Plancus and C. Trebonius, his lieutenants. 10 The next day, early in the morning, he sent both foot-soldiers and horse in three divisions on an expedition to pursue those who had fled. 38 Elated by this victory, Ambiorix marches immediately with his cavalry to the Aduatuci, who bordered on his kingdom; he halts neither day nor night, and orders the infantry to follow him closely. But, curiously, the natives do not take nearly the advantage of natural resources that they might. He writes in the letter, that he having set out with his legions, will quickly be there: he entreats him to maintain his ancient valor. 47 Having been apprised of the arrival of Crassus by the scouts at about the third hour, he advances twenty miles that day. The Romans are in trouble immediately and Sabinus panics. The survivors kill each other during the night to avoid being brutally murdered by the enemy. He, however, when recalled, began to resist and defend himself with his hand, and implore the support of his people, often exclaiming that �he was free and the subject of a free state.� They surround and kill the man as they had been commanded; but the Aeduan horsemen all return to Caesar. He tells them that finally they have a chance to rid themselves of the Romans. Finally departing, after a long period of waiting for fair weather, Caesar leaves Labienus on the continent with three legions and 2,000 horsemen to guard the port and to maintain the grain supply. Fortune so dealt with both in this rivalry and conflict, that the one competitor was a succor and a safeguard to the other, nor could it be determined which of the two appeared worthy of being preferred to the other. OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR. These having been entrapped, the Eburones, the Nervii, and the Aduatici and all their allies and dependents, begin to attack the legion: our men quickly run together to arms and mount the rampart; they sustained the attack that day with great difficulty, since the enemy placed all their hope in dispatch, and felt assured that, if they obtained this victory, they would be conquerors forever. Cassivellaunus, when this battle was reported to him as so many losses had been sustained, and his territories laid waste, being alarmed most of all by the desertion of the states, sends embassadors to Caesar [to treat] about a surrender through the mediation of Commius the Atrebatian. One legion which he had raised last on the other side of the Po, and five cohorts, he sent among the Eburones, the greatest portion of whom lie between the Meuse and the Rhine, [and] who were under the government of Ambiorix and Cativolcus. After hearing of Sabinus' defeat, almost all of the Gallic states begin to plan for war and, throughout the winter, Caesar receives reports of the brewing rebellion. Many Britons are killed simply because there is no time for them to get out of their chariots. Caesar has the Trinobantes send him hostages and grain and he grants their request. De Bello Gallico Book 1. He then proclaims an armed convention, marking the beginning of war. A few manage to get away from the battle and reach the camp of Titus Labienus and tell him all that has happened. Probably, he decides, troops have been there, but they have no doubt been frightened by the sight of the massive Roman fleet. Indutiomarus realizes that he has suffered a slight from the empire and his resentment smolders. The full work is split into eight sections, Book 1 to Book 8, each varying in size from approximately 5,000 to 15,000 words. During the night as many as 120 towers are raised with incredible dispatch out of the timber which they had collected for the purpose of fortification: the things which seemed necessary to the work are completed. In disguise this slave, it is hoped, will be able to pass as one of the Gauls and carry a message to Caesar concealed in a spear shaft. Caesar sends Fabius and his legion back to their cantonment and decides to spend the winter in Gaul. That day, Q. Laberius Durus, a tribune of the soldiers, was slain. Cotta, however, refuses. The enemy hears the sounds of preparations and sets up an ambush two miles away. 1 Lucius Domitius and Appius Claudius being consuls [54 B.C. When our men had speedily taken up arms and had ascended the rampart, and sending out some Spanish horse on one side, had proved conquerors in a cavalry action, the enemy, despairing of success, drew off their troops from the assault. Caesar receives hostages, and leads back his army into Gaul.—XXIV. He witnesses with surprise the towers, mantelets, and [other] fortifications belonging to the enemy: the legion having been drawn out, he finds that even every tenth soldier had not escaped without wounds. The Remi are quick to inform Labienus of Caesar's victory even though he is sixty miles away, and the Romans there are elated at the news. He directs him, if he should be unable to enter, to throw his spear with the letter fastened to the thong, inside the fortifications of the camp. Even Cotta, himself has been smashed in the face by a missile. At this, the Romans are disheartened; they detest having to assume a defensive position. And since they [Titurius and Cotta] could less easily perform every thing by themselves, and provide what was to be done in each place, by reason of the length of the line of march, they ordered [the officers] to give the command that they should leave the baggage and form themselves into an orb, which measure, though in a contingency of that nature it was not to be condemned, still turned out unfortunately; for it both diminished the hope of our soldiers and rendered the enemy more eager for the fight, because it appeared that this was not done without the greatest fear and despair. The enemy also refuses to fight closely, spreads out, and has small parties relieve one another as they grow tired. He makes it as small as possible, hoping that the enemy will be so rash that their moves will be careless and prove fatal for them. At length, each thigh of T. Balventius, who the year before had been chief centurion, a brave man and one of great authority, is pierced with a javelin; Q. Lucanius, of the same rank, fighting most valiantly, is slain while he assists his son when surrounded by the enemy; L. Cotta, the lieutenant, when encouraging all the cohorts and companies, is wounded full in the mouth by a sling. Cotta, on the other hand, has been suspicious and so remains calm. But they know they can withstand the enemy from their entrenchment; this they have already demonstrated, and they have enough food and can send for aid, so their courage is bolstered. The Senones, however, which is a state eminently powerful and one of great influence among the Gauls, attempting by general design to slay Cavarinus, whom Caesar had created king among them (whose brother, Moritasgus, had held the sovereignty at the period of the arrival of Caesar in Gaul, and whose ancestors had also previously held it), when he discovered their plot and fled, pursued him even to the frontiers [of the state], and drove him from his kingdom and his home; and, after having sent embassadors to Caesar for the purpose of concluding a peace, when he ordered all their senate to come to him, did not obey that command. 22 While these things are going forward in those places, Cassivellaunus sends messengers into Kent, which, we have observed above, is on the sea, over which districts four several kings reigned, Cingetorix, Carvilius, Taximagulus and Segonax, and commands them to collect all their forces, and unexpectedly assail and storm the naval camp. This very day shall decide our disputes.� When he had uttered these words, he proceeds beyond the fortifications, and rushes on that part of the enemy which appeared the thickest. He sends messengers to Caesar, but none manages to get through enemy lines. Gaius Julius Caesar The Gallic Wars Book 4. I. Caesar orders a large fleet of peculiarly constructed ships to be built; proceeds against the Pirustae; they submit.—II. L. Aurunculeius, and several tribunes of the soldiers and the centurions of the first rank, were of opinion �that nothing should be done hastily, and that they should not depart from the camp without Caesar�s orders;� they declared, �that any forces of the Germans, however great, might be encountered by fortified winter-quarters; that this fact was a proof [of it]; that they had sustained the first assault of the Germans most valiantly, inflicting many wounds upon them; that they were not distressed for corn; that in the mean time relief would come both from the nearest winter-quarters and from Caesar; lastly, they put the query, �what could be more undetermined, more undignified, than to adopt measures respecting the most important affairs on the authority of an enemy?� Having related the exploit and roused the Aduatuci, the next day he arrived among the Nervii, and entreats �that they should not throw away the opportunity of liberating themselves forever and of punishing the Romans for those wrongs which they had received from them;� [he tells them] �that two lieutenants have been slain, and that a large portion of the army has perished; that it was not a matter of difficulty for the legion which was wintering with Cicero to be cut off, when suddenly assaulted; he declares himself ready to cooperate in that design. Read De Bello Gallico and Other Commentaries online by Julius Caesar at ReadCentral.com, the free online library full of thousands of classic books. Cassivellaunus' next move is to disband his army. But Indutiomarus does not remain idle while his rival attempts to reap Caesar's favors. Caesar gives orders to Labienus to build more ships; Cassivellaunus.—XII.-XIV. 25 There was among the Carnutes a man named Tasgetius, born of very high rank, whose ancestors had held the sovereignty in his state. 42 Disappointed in this hope, the Nervii surround the winter-quarters with a rampart eleven feet high, and a ditch thirteen feet in depth. When he had arrived there, having made a survey of the winter quarter, he finds that, by the extraordinary ardor of the soldiers, amid the utmost scarcity of all materials, about six hundred ships of that kind which we have described above and twenty-eight ships of war, had been built, and were not far from that state, that they might be launched in a few days. He keeps only 4,000 charioteers and follows the Romans, harassing their foraging parties. The ruler of the Carnutes had been Tasgetius, a descendant of former kings and a man who helped Rome in the past; Caesar had declared him ruler, but after a two-year reign, he was killed by enemies within the state. This he sends written in Greek characters, lest the letter being intercepted, our measures should be discovered by the enemy. 6 There was together with the others, Dumnorix, the Aeduan, of whom we have made previous mention. The coastal farms are like those of the Gauls and they keep many cattle. But the enemy, after some time had elapsed, when our men were off their guard, and occupied in the fortification of the camp, rushed out of the woods, and making an attack upon those who were placed on duty before the camp, fought in a determined manner; and two cohorts being sent by Caesar to their relief, and these severally the first of two legions, when these had taken up their position at a very small distance from each other, as our men were disconcerted by the unusual mode of battle, the enemy broke through the middle of them most courageously, and retreated thence in safety. He has more reason than to consider talking as Sabinus did; he is in a situation of disadvantage but sticks to an intelligent plan and refuses to leave his camp. 8 When these things were done [and] Labienus left on the continent with three legions and 2,000 horse, to defend the harbors and provide corn, and discover what was going on in Gaul, and take measures according to the occasion and according to the circumstance; he himself, with five legions and a number of horse, equal to that which he was leaving on the continent, set sail at sun-set, and [though for a time] borne forward by a gentle south-west wind, he did not maintain his course, in consequence of the wind dying away about midnight, and being carried on too far by the tide, when the sun rose, espied Britain passed on his left. When Indutiomarus, however, learns of the general's feat, he abandons his plan of attack and moves his forces. When the fight was going on most vigorously before the fortifications, Pulfio, one of them, says, �Why do you hesitate, Varenus? outnumbered almost nine to one, with the enemy having 60,000 troops to his 7,000, Caesar feigns fright as his foes press close to his camp. When the Romans are building camp and are off-guard, he writes, the enemy dashes from the woods and attacks the outposts. He, when addressed, replied, �If he wishes to confer with him, it was permitted; that he hoped what pertained to the safety of the soldiers could be obtained from the people; that to him however certainly no injury would be done, and that he pledged his faith to that effect.� He consults with Cotta, who had been wounded, whether it would appear right to retire from battle, and confer with Ambiorix; [saying] that he hoped to be able to succeed respecting his own and the soldiers� safety. They do not, for example, eat rabbits, wild fowl, or even geese. Therefore he selects workmen from the legions, and orders others to be sent for from the continent; he writes to Labienus to build as many ships as he could with those legions which were with him. Just as his men have sighted the enemy, Quintus Atrius sends word that a storm has damaged many of the ships, and Caesar commands the troops to defer attack. UNLIMITED BOOKS, ALL IN ONE PLACE. First he slows his march and entrenches a camp. There he learns from some prisoners what things are going on in the camp of Cicero, and in how great jeopardy the affair is. 6.1.8. 18 Caesar, discovering their design, leads his army into the territories of Cassivellaunus to the river Thames; which river can be forded in one place only and that with difficulty. The column proves too long to manage effectively, so he orders the troops to abandon the equipment and form a square. Again, when they had begun to return to that place from which they had advanced, they were surrounded both by those who had retreated and by those who stood next them; but if, on the other hand, they wish to keep their place, neither was an opportunity left for valor, nor could they, being crowded together, escape the weapons cast by so large a body of men. An assembly being held the following day, he states the occurrence; he consoles and encourages the soldiers; he suggests, that the disaster, which had been occasioned by the misconduct and rashness of his lieutenant, should be borne with a patient mind, because by the favor of the immortal gods and their own valor, neither was lasting joy left to the enemy, nor very lasting grief to them. The enemy then move in as if victory were already in their hands; the Romans, however, keep their heads, ignore the flames and continue fighting. He, of course, is murdered. Caesar's details here make vividly clear to his readers the individual characteristics of his new enemy; he never fights a vague, unknown warring force. De Bello Gallico by Caio Júlio César. Cassivellaunus next calls in forces from the other districts of Kent and attacks Caesar's naval camp, but is quickly put down by the Romans. They use either brass or iron rings, determined at a certain weight, as their money. There L. Cotta, while fighting, is slain, together with the greater part of the soldiers; the rest betake themselves to the camp, from which they had marched forth, and one of them, L. Petrosidius, the standard bearer, when he was overpowered by the great number of the enemy, threw the eagle within the intrenchments and is himself slain while fighting with the greatest courage before the camp. Gallic Wars, (58–50 bce), campaigns in which the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar conquered Gaul. The valor and conduct of Cotta.—XXXVIII.-XLII. When Caesar got proconsul of Gallia and Illyria in 58 B.C, the conquest of land in Gaul was an urgent need, both to improve his political standing and to calm his creditors in Rome. But the system of cavalry engagement is wont to produce equal danger, and indeed the same, both to those who retreat and to those who pursue. He then sends his cavalry and foot soldiers out in a sudden charge. The man they plead for had come to Caesar on the mainland and asked for protection after Cassivellaunus killed his father. [4.1] The following winter (this was the year in which Cn. But, while the minds of all were occupied, Dumnorix began to take his departure from the camp homeward with the cavalry of the Aedui, Caesar being ignorant of it. Tin is produced in the midland regions; in the maritime, iron; but the quantity of it is small: they employ brass, which is imported. The council demands that the generals settle on one plan; danger, they insist, lies in disagreement and eventually it is Cotta who yields. Joining him at the port are the Gallic chiefs and 4,000 cavalry. Caesar will save them from slaughter. This is more than even the usually lenient Caesar can tolerate and when, prior to sailing, Dumnorix escapes, Caesar sends his cavalry after the traitor with orders to kill him if necessary. The reason for the destruction of Sabinus and Cotta's legions is this: the two men do not follow the long-established procedures for saving besieged legions; both are responsible for the disaster. Caesar orders the horse to give way purposely, and retreat to the camp: at the same time he orders the camp to be fortified with a higher rampart in all directions, the gates to be barricaded, and in executing these things as much confusion to be shown as possible, and to perform them under the pretense of fear. Caesar learns of the assassination and fears revolt, so he orders Lucius Plancus to move his legion from the land of the Belgae to the land of the Carnutes for the winter. Next, the general describes the island's shape and the location of some islands in the channel and notes that the nights here seem shorter than on the continent. Book 8 84 6.1.9 Summary of the results of the analysis of the excerpts from De Bello Gallico 87 6.2. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting local armies in … This episode might have resulted in a telling victory. Caesar sends two experienced cohorts to support his troops, but the enemy breaks through and escapes. 2 • A Notebook for Caesar’s De Bello Gallico [1.1] Gallia est omnis dÄ«vÄ«sa in partēs trēs, quārum Å«nam incolunt Belgae, aliam AquÄ«tānÄ«, tertiam quÄ« ipsōrum linguā Celtae, nostrā GallÄ« appellantur. When the long, cumbersome Roman column moves into a deep ravine, they are attacked from both sides and the rear-totally trapped. In the mean while, Indutiomarus, according to his daily practice, advances up to the camp and spends a great part of the day there: his horse cast their weapons, and with very insulting language call out our men to battle. He will not be responsible. The climate is more temperate than in Gaul, the colds being less severe. The first load leaves, but there is bad weather on the return trip to Britain and very few of the ships, including the new ones built by Labienus, make the rendezvous. They themselves rushed out of the woods to fight here and there, and prevented our men from entering their fortifications. After this defeat, many of the tribes quit the defense of Britain and the enemy strength is greatly diminished. But Indutiomarus began to collect cavalry and infantry, and make preparations for war, having concealed those who by reason of their age could not be under arms, in the forest Arduenna, which is of immense size, [and] extends from the Rhine across the country of the Treviri to the frontiers of the Remi. Looking for the plot summary of De Bello Gallico and Other Commentaries ? Finally the tower catches fire. Having commended the soldiers and those who had presided over the work, he informs them what he wishes to be done, and orders all the ships to assemble at port Itius, from which port he had learned that the passage into Britain was shortest, [being only] about thirty miles from the continent. Then, again, following the change of tide, he urged on with the oars that he might make that part of the island in which he had discovered the preceding summer, that there was the best landing-place, and in this affair the spirit of our soldiers was very much to be extolled; for they with the transports and heavy ships, the labor of rowing not being [for a moment] discontinued, equaled the speed of the ships of war. The Gauls and Germans, he feels, have various reasons for wanting to get even with Rome and if the Gauls and Germans are jointly armed, their best chance for victory is a quick move to the next legion. He easily gains over the Nervii by this speech. Discover the latest and greatest in eBooks and Audiobooks. 13 The island is triangular in its form, and one of its sides is opposite to Gaul. The enemy, having remained only a short time, did not sustain the attack of our soldiers, and hurried away on the other side of the town. Caesar accepts their explanation, tells them to bring hostages, and appoints arbitrators to arrange for payment of both penalty and damages. I. Caesar, apprehending commotions in Gaul, ... 5 This part of Gaul having been tranquilized, he applies himself entirely both in mind and soul to the war with the Treviri and Ambiorix. At last Cotta, being overruled, yields his assent; the opinion of Sabinus prevails. And such great influence had he already acquired for himself in Gaul by these means, that embassies were flocking to him in all directions, and seeking, publicly and privately, his favor and friendship. 57 Labienus, since he was confining himself within a camp strongly fortified by the nature of the ground and by art, had no apprehensions as to his own and the legion�s danger, but was devising that he might throw away no opportunity of conducting the war successfully. Soon they see smoke from burning villages and fields and know that the general is coming. In this book the famous Gaius Julius Caesar himself describes the seven years of his war in Gaul. A great amount of cattle was found there, and many of the enemy were taken and slain in their flight. He is impressed by the towers and fortifications the enemy has erected but is shocked and saddened to find that nine-tenths of Cicero's troops are wounded. ‎Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. That his own opinion was safe on either side; if there be nothing very formidable, they would go without danger to the nearest legion; if all Gaul conspired with the Germans, their only safety lay in dispatch. 56 When he perceived that they were coming to him voluntarily; that on the one side the Senones and the Carnutes were stimulated by their consciousness of guilt, on the other side the Nervii and the Aduatuci were preparing war against the Romans, and that forces of volunteers would not be wanting to him if he began to advance from his own territories, he proclaims an armed council (this according to the custom of the Gauls in the commencement of war) at which, by a common law, all the youth were wont to assemble in arms, whoever of them comes last is killed in the sight of the whole assembly after being racked with every torture. bookmarked pages associated with this title. Caesar, accepting their defense, demands hostages, and orders them to be brought to him on a specified day, and assures them that unless they did so he would visit their state with war. 55 But the Triviri and Indutiomarus let no part of the entire winter pass without sending embassadors across the Rhine, importuning the states, promising money, and asserting that, as a large portion of our army had been cut off, a much smaller portion remained. The enemy following up their success with a very loud shout, as if victory were already obtained and secured, began to advance their towers and mantelets, and climb the rampart with ladders. When the Gallic tribes rebel and destroy part of Caesar's legion, he vows to get revenge on the leader, Ambiorix. "). The Trinobantes send ambassadors to Caesar respecting the conduct of Cassivellaunus towards Mandubratius.—XXII. In that state, two persons, Indutiomarus and Cingetorix, were then contending with each other for the supreme power; one of whom, as soon as the arrival of Caesar and his legions was known, came to him; assures him that he and all his party would continue in their allegiance, and not revolt from the alliance of the Roman people, and informs him of the things which were going on among the Treviri. All the ships reached Britain nearly at mid-day; nor was there seen a [single] enemy in that place, but, as Caesar afterward found from some prisoners, though large bodies of troops had assembled there, yet being alarmed by the great number of our ships, more than eight hundred of which, including the ships of the preceding year, and those private vessels which each had built for his own convenience, had appeared at one time, they had quitted the coast and concealed themselves among the higher points. These having advanced a little way, when already the rear [of the enemy] was in sight, some horse came to Caesar from Quintus Atrius, to report that the preceding night, a very great storm having arisen, almost all the ships were dashed to pieces and cast upon the shore, because neither the anchors and cables could resist, nor could the sailors and pilots sustain the violence of the storm; and thus great damage was received by that collision of the ships. viii • A Notebook for Caesar’s De Bello Gallico More than grammar, forms, and even strange word order, it is vocabulary that will hold you back from reading the Latin language with fl uency and comprehension. Cotta is against Sabinus' plan, but he does not contest it sufficiently and Sabinus foolishly leads the troops out of their camp, careless about the formation of the march. Ambiorix, when he observed this, orders the command to be issued that they throw their weapons from a distance and do not approach too near, and in whatever direction the Romans should make an attack, there give way (from the lightness of their appointments and from their daily practice no damage could be done them); [but] pursue them when betaking themselves to their standards again. The work is carried on incessantly in the night: not even to the sick, or wounded, is opportunity given for rest: whatever things are required for resisting the assault of the next day are provided during the night: many stakes burned at the end, and a large number of mural pikes are procured: towers are built up, battlements and parapets are formed of interwoven hurdles. The easy way to get free eBooks every day. 31 They rise from the council, detain both, and entreat, that �they do not bring the matter into the greatest jeopardy by their dissension and obstinacy; the affair was an easy one, if only they all thought and approved of the same thing, whether they remain or depart; on the other hand, they saw no security in dissension.� The matter is prolonged by debate till midnight. They speedily performed the things demanded, and sent hostages to the number appointed, and the corn. Then they shouted, according to their custom, that some of our men should go forward to a conference, [alleging] that they had some things which they desired to say respecting the common interest, by which they trusted their disputes could be removed. Ambiorix defends himself in reference to his share in the Gallic combination.—XXVIII.-XXXI. The mission is successful; Caesar does receive the message late in the day and in turn sends a quick message to Crassus, twenty-five miles away, instructing him to start at midnight and join Caesar's troops. Our men were equal to them in fighting, both in courage and in number, and though they were deserted by their leader and by fortune, yet they still placed all hope of safety in their valor, and as often as any cohort sallied forth on that side, a great number of the enemy usually fell. He has now suffered many defeats, has had his lands destroyed and is currently having trouble with subjects beginning to revolt; therefore, he asks for peace. Gallic Wars Book 4 (55 B.C.E.) The enemy then charges the remaining body of the Romans. Caesar, meantime, waits in Gaul until he is sure the legions are safely entrenched. This side is considered to be 800 miles in length. Book 6 Chapter 5.24 SubductÄ«s nāvibus, conciliōque Gallōrum SamarobrÄ«vae perāctō, quod eō annō frÅ«mentum in Galliā propter siccitātēs angustius prōvēnerat, coāctus est aliter āc superiōribus annÄ«s exercitum in hÄ«bernÄ«s collocāre, legiōnēsque in plÅ«rēs cÄ«vitātēs distribuere. Immediately after this retreat, the auxiliaries who had assembled from all sides, departed; nor after that time did the enemy ever engage with us in very large numbers. Now you can read De Bello Gallico and Other Commentaries free from the comfort of your computer or mobile phone and enjoy other many other free books by Julius Caesar. Their parley unsuccessful, the Nervii surround the Roman camp with a rampart nine feet high and a trench fifteen feet wide, a technique they have learned from the Romans. Tasgetius.—XXVI. It is Labienus who finishes Indutiomarns' defeat. Pullo is then surrounded and Vorenus is forced to come to his aid. He himself, on the assizes of Hither Gaul being concluded, proceeds into Illyricum, because he heard that the part of the province nearest them was being laid waste by the incursions of the Pirustae. In the same place, the cavalry of the whole of Gaul, in number 4,000, assembles, and [also] the chief persons of all the states; he had determined to leave in Gaul a very few of them, whose fidelity toward him he had clearly discerned, and take the rest with him as hostages; because he feared a commotion in Gaul when he should be absent. Caesar marches to the relief of Cicero; defeats the Eburones.—LIII. The third side is toward the north, to which portion of the island no land is opposite; but an angle of that side looks principally toward Germany. He orders the legion to set forward in the middle of the night, and come to him with dispatch. courtneydunne. Caesar moves to the territorial borders of Cassivellaunus at the river Thames because that river can be crossed on foot at one place only, and it is there that the enemy forces assemble. This series of annual war commentaries is referred to by various names but is commonly called De bello Gallico in Latin, or The Gallic Wars in English. Tin is produced in the midland, and iron on the coast; bronze is imported. Book 8 was written by Aulus Hirtius, after Caesar's death. That fact Caesar had learned from his own personal friends. That day he is able to move twenty miles and at sundown further plans are made: Crassus is left with a legion to take care of Samarobriva, the baggage, hostages, documents, and winter food supply. Book 1 93 6.2.2. The quarters of Cicero attacked by the Eburones; he sends intelligence to Caesar.—XLIV. The Romans charge and the cavalry joins in. He seems finally to do everything possible to make the enemy's ambush a success. The Romans arm themselves for fighting in close formation, but this proves ineffective against the British style of fighting. The conflict is more than a skirmish; it is of major proportions, for Trebonius has three legions, plus his cavalry with him — in all 15,000 to 17,000 men. Then, one night Labienus brings the cavalry he had summoned inside, but has the camp guarded so there will be no way for Indutiomarus to discover his reserve. Returns into Hither Gaul; marches against the Treviri.—III. They move, then, feeling sure that Ambiorix has advised them as a friend, not as an enemy. Ambiorix and Catuvolcus, induced by Indutiomarus of the Treveri, attack a detachment of Romans who are gathering wood, then attack the main camp and are effective until the Roman cavalry arrives. The enemy, since more cohorts were sent against them, were repulsed. Menu. When this letter was brought to him about the middle of the night, Caesar apprises his soldiers of its contents, and inspires them with courage for fighting: the following day, at the dawn, he moves his camp, and, having proceeded four miles, he espies the forces of the enemy on the other side of a considerable valley and rivulet. All these differ from each other in language, customs and laws. He instructs them to assemble at the Itian port nearest Britain, about thirty miles away, then takes four legions and 800 horsemen to the Treveri, who had not come to councils or obeyed his commands and who are reportedly stirring unrest among the Germans. And thus the whole state was at his control; and that he, if Caesar would permit, would come to the camp to him, and would commit his own fortunes and those of the state to his good faith. He himself, though the matter was one of great difficulty and labor, yet thought it to be most expedient for all the ships to be brought up on shore and joined with the camp by one fortification. Being repulsed by our cavalry, they concealed themselves in woods, as they had secured a place admirably fortified by nature and by art, which, as it seemed, they had before prepared on account of a civil war; for all entrances to it were shut up by a great number of felled trees. Slowly, he grows stronger and soon various states are asking to join with him. 7 Having learned this fact, Caesar, because he had conferred so much honor upon the Aeduan state, determined that Dumnorix should be restrained and deterred by whatever means he could; and that, because he perceived his insane designs to be proceeding further and further, care should be taken lest he might be able to injure him and the commonwealth. A slave, by whom they are caught by surprise when a Roman charges... 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